Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (ATCC® 9372)

Strain Designations: NRS 1221A  /  Type Strain: no  /  Biosafety Level: 1

Permits and Restrictions

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Deposited As Bacillus subtilis var. niger Smith et al.
Strain Designations NRS 1221A
Resistance Testing
Dry heat sterilization control
Efficacy testing
Ethylene oxide sterilization control
Media testing
Steam sterilization control
Sterility assurance
Sterilization control
Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
Biosafety Level 1

Biosafety classification is based on U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines, it is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that their facilities comply with biosafety regulations for their own country.

Product Format freeze-dried
Storage Conditions Frozen: -80°C or colder
Freeze-Dried: 2°C to 8°C
Live Culture: See Propagation Section
Preceptrol® no
Type Strain no
This strain is recommended by ATCC for use in the tests described in military specification MIL S-36586A and U.S. Pharmacopeia, 23rd rev., <1211>, pp. 1976-1981, 1995 where only the taxon is specified.
Variations in colonial morphology and pigmentation occur on nutrient agar; strain is orange on beef extract glucose agar and black on tyrosine agar. Selection of colonies for pigment enhancement is not advised.
Respiration as a function of osmotic pressure
Sterilizing effects of airborne sound waves
Inactivation by oxygen gas plasma
Medium ATCC® Medium 3: Nutrient agar or nutrient broth
Growth Conditions
Temperature: 30°C
Atmosphere: Aerobic
Name of Depositor NR Smith
Special Collection ATCC

Biochim. Biophys. Acta 62: 145, 1962.

Nelson CL, Berger TJ. Inactivation of microorganisms by oxygen gas plasma. Curr. Microbiol. 18: 275-276, 1989.

Nakamura LK. Taxonomic relationship of black-pigmented Bacillus subtilis strains and a proposal for Bacillus atrophaeus sp. nov.. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 295-300, 1989.

Pisano MA, et al. Sterilizing effects of high-intensity airborne sonic and ultrasonic waves. Appl. Microbiol. 14: 732-736, 1966. PubMed: 4961527

British Pharmacopoeia Commission Methods of sterilization. London, UK:British Pharmacopoeia Commission;British Pharmacopoeia Appendix XVIII, 2003

European Pharmacopoeia Commission Biological indicators of sterilization. Strasbourg, France:European Pharmacopoeia Commission;European Pharmacopoeia EP 5.1.2, 1997

U.S. Pharmacopeia USP Monographs: Biological Indicator for Dry-heat Sterilization, Paper Carrier. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia; USP USP34-NF29, 2011

U.S. Pharmacopeia USP Monographs: Biological Indicator for Ethylene Oxide Sterilization, Paper Carrier. Rockville, MD:U.S. Pharmacopeia;USP USP34-Nf29, 2011

Fritze D, Pukall R. Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51: 35-37, 2001. PubMed: 11211269

Microbial Ranking of Porous Packaging Materials (Exposure Chamber Method). Gaithersburg, MD:AOAC International;AOAC "Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International" 997.17.

Terminal Sterilization and Sterilization Indicators. Tokyo, Japan:Japanese Pharmacopoeia;JP JP14e.part II.15.

Sterilization of health care products--Biological indicators--Part 2: Biological indicators for ethylene oxide sterilization. Geneva (Switzerland):International Organization for Standardization/ANSI;ISO ISO 11138-2:1994.

Standard Test Method for Determination of Effectiviness of Cleaning Processes for Reusable Medical Instruments Using a Microbiologic Method (Simulated Use Test). West Conshohocken, PA:ASTM International;ASTM Standard Test Method E 2314-03.

Standard Test Method for Quantitative Sporicidal Three-Step Method (TSM) to Determine Sporicidal Efficacy of Liquids, Liquid Sprays, and Vapor or Gases on Contaminated Carrier Surfaces. West Conshohocken, PA:ASTM International;ASTM Standard Test Method E 2414-05.

Sterilization of health care products --- Biological indicators, Part 2: Biological indicators for ethylene oxide sterilization processes. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 11138-2:2006.

Sterilization of single-use medical devices incorporating materials of animal origin --- Validation and routine control of sterilization by liquid chemical sterilants, Annex A. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 14160:1998.

Clothing for protection against infectious agents --- Test method for resistance to dry microbial penetration. London, UK:British Standards Institution;British Standard BS EN ISO 22612:2005.

Notice: Necessary PermitsPermits

These permits may be required for shipping this product:

  • Customers located in the state of Hawaii will need to contact the Hawaii Department of Agriculture to determine if an Import Permit is required. A copy of the permit or documentation that a permit is not required must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment.
Basic Documentation